Friday, June 23, 2017

International Multidisciplinary Conference on Education for Future: Issues and Challenges 8 & 9 July 2017



International Multidisciplinary Conference 
on
Education for Future: Issues and Challenges
8 & 9 July 2017




International Multidisciplinary Conference 
on
Education for Future: Issues and Challenges
8 & 9 July 2017

The Aim of Teaching





The Aim of Teaching

There are various modes of teaching. These include conditioning, training, instruction and indoctrination. These are a kind of teaching (or a part of teaching, i.e., whole teaching process include all these) but not synonym with teaching. Some concepts related to various modes of teaching are as
follows:
1. Training helps in shaping conduct and teaching various skills
2. The distinction between training and education may be made through the evaluation of the degree of intelligent behaviour produced by them.
3. Instruction work on a higher footing than conditioning and training as far as the involvement of intellectual powers and modes of teaching are concerned. But they cannot be equated with teaching.
4. Instruction is mainly concerned with the development of knowledge and understanding in an individual which represents one of many objectives of education and teaching.
5. Teaching is aimed towards shaping a total man, while instruction aims only for the development of intellect and affect the cognitive domain of behaviour. Teaching may include or cover instruction.
6. Indoctrination represents a fairly high level of teaching shaping beliefs and ideals. Indoctrination may mean teaching can be done without indoctrination.
To summarize, the aims of teaching with respect to its various modes, are as follows:


Teaching – to bring changes in the behaviour of student.
Conditioning – to improve the learning skills of student.
Training – shaping the behaviour and conduct.
Instruction – Acquisition of knowledge.
Indoctrination – Formation of belief.  

Thursday, June 22, 2017

Harry Behn's Trees




Trees  - Harry Behn

Harry Behn (September 24, 1898 – September 6, 1973), also known as Giles Behn, was an American screenwriter and children's author.  Harry Behn was born in 1898 in McCabe, Arizona, which is now a ghost town, in Yavapai County in what was then the Arizona Territory. He was the son of Henry K. Behn, an immigrant from Germany, and Maren (or Marion) Christensen Behn, an immigrant from Denmark. 
At the age of 18, after he had been accepted as a student at Stanford University but before he went there, he met Henry Berger, a photographer affiliated with the Prizma Company, who hired Harry Behn as his assistant for the summer. The two of them went to Yellowstone and Glacier National Park, where they were supposed to take a series of nature slides for Prizma. A family emergency took Henry Berger away for a month, and during this time Harry Behn stayed in Glacier National Park with all the photographic equipment, waiting for Berger to return. While Berger was gone, Harry Behn made friends with some young Blackfoot Indians whose reservation was in the park, and lived with them. He was invited to join the tribe, and underwent all the tests and rituals involved in becoming a Blackfoot, and received the name Big Wolf Medicine. For a while he was actually listed as a Blackfoot with the Indian Service, making him eligible for oil royalties being paid to the Blackfoot tribe, and he actually received a check, but he later convinced the Indian Service to give the money to the tribe. 

He received his education at Stanford University, which he attended in 1918, and Harvard University (S.B., 1922).
Trees are the kindest things I know,
they do not harm, they simply grow
and spread a shade for sleepy cows,
and gather birds among their bows.

They give us fruit in leaves above,
and wood to make our houses of,
and leaves to burn on Halloween
and in the Spring new buds of green.

They are first when day’s begun
to tough the beams of morning sun,
they are the last to hold the light
When evening changes into night.

And when a moon floats on the sky
They hum a drowsy lullby
of sleepy children long ago…
Trees are the kindest things I know.
Comprehension 
Say whether these statements are true or false:-
1) Trees are unkind to human being . False
2) Trees offer shelter to birds. False
3) Birds sing a lullaby. False
4) Trees are kind because the sun is kind to them. True
5) Trees go to sleep before the sun set. False
6) Trees are first to welcome the sun. True

1)      How do the trees show kindness to animals and birds?
Ans: The trees show kindness to animals by providing shade and spread the boughs for birds.
2)    Where do the birds builds their nests?
Ans: The birds build their nests among the boughs (branches).
3)    Why do the trees look beautiful during both morning and evening?
Ans: The trees look beautiful during morning when the first beams of the sun fall on them, similarly in the evening the trees hold the last ray of the sun which is delicate and tender.
4)    What is a lullaby? Why is the hum of trees compared to a lullaby?
Ans: A lullaby is a song sung gently and softly to make a baby sleep. The hum of trees is compared to a lullaby as their gentle movements helps the world to sleep.
Q) How do trees behave like a kind person?
Ans: Trees are kindest things because they help birds, animals, man and environment selflessly. Trees do not mean any harm to anyone, they simply grow.
 Q) Quote complete praising trees
Ans: Couplets praising trees are – a) They do no harm, they simply grow And spread a shade for sleepy cows. b) And when a moon floats on the sky They hum a drowsy lullaby.
Q) Writes down the rhyming word:
Ans: know, grow / cows, boughs light, night / sky, lullaby.

This is a simple poem in four stanzas about trees and what they mean to the poet. The poem conveys the importance of trees to the world with the use of very simple images and the poem has a regular rhyme scheme. A regular rhyme scheme means that you can see a pattern in the last words of each line. In this poem you will notice that the poem is in couplets with the last two words of each couplet having similar sounding words (Know/Grow, Cows/boughs).
Trees, as you all know, are very important for the survival of this world. Trees not only add colour to the landscape but make survival possible for us and many other creatures. Today we see that trees are slowly disappearing from our cities, villages and jungles, which, perhaps, is leading to global warming and a possible threat to our very existence. Thus it is important to preserve our forests and, if possible, plant as many trees as possible. You would perhaps remember the lesson on tree planting in "Everyday English-I." The title of the lesson is "My Father's Trees in Dehra." It will be interesting to compare that lesson with this one and see if they sound similar or different.
The poem begins with the line "Trees are the kindest things I know." Trees are kind because, amongst other things, they harm no one. To be kind is to be gentle, caring and helpful to others. In the first stanza the poet talks about the kindness of the trees towards the animal world. They provide shade to the sleepy cows and provide a place for the birds to gather and to build their nest as well among their branches. In the second stanza the poet talks about the tree's kindness to human beings. They provide us with food, wood for building houses and leaves full of beauty and joy in spring time, when the trees get fresh leaves and flowers.
The trees are kind because they just grow (without much help from us) and in their process of growth, they only shower blessings on man and animals without harming anyone. The images of `sleeping cows' and `birds among their bough' evokes an extremely pleasant, simple and peaceful landscape. The first two stanzas create an image of a peaceful and harmonious world and at the centre of the world are the trees which provide many things but demand very little or nothing from us.

This atmosphere of peace and tranquility is carried over to the stanzas, 3 and 4. The third stanza talks about the loftiness of the trees. The trees, being tall, are the first ones to catch the morning beams of the sun as it rises over the horizon. The expression `To touch the beams of morning sun" make the trees seem tall, majestic and lofty reaching out to the sun with their many arms (branches) spread out. And they are also the last to "hold the light" before night sets in. It seems as if the trees, in a generous gesture, bring in and hold the life giving sunlight for the world's benefit. And finally, in the last stanzas the trees sing a lullaby, when the moon is up, to put people to sleep. The trees look very benign in the stanza. After the day's work when people are tired and sleepy, the trees, like an old loving grandmother, sings them a lullaby of `sleepy children long ago.' This lullaby is the rustling of leaves in a gentle breeze. It reminds people of sleepy children or in other words, of uncorrupted, pure and simple life. The last line is a repetition of the opening line, "Trees are the kindest things I know." The poet's belief that trees are the kindest things is reinforced through the various images used in the poem and this is again reaffirmed in the last line of the poem.

Harry Behn's Trees

C.A. Bowles's The River



C.A. Bowles's The River

River, river, little river! 
Bright you sparkle on your way; 
O’er the yellow pebbles dancing, 
Through the flowers and foliage glancing, 
Like a child at play. 

River, river! swelling river! 
On you rush through rough and smooth; 
Louder, faster, brawling, leaping, 
Over rocks, by rose-banks, sweeping
Like impetuous youth. 

River, river! brimming river! 
Broad and deep, and still as time; 
Seeming still, yet still in motion, 
Tending onward to the ocean, 
Just like mortal prime. 

River, river! headlong river! 
Down you dash into the sea, _
Sea that line hath never sounded, 
Sea that sail hath never rounded, 
Like eternity.


C.A. Bowles

Caroline Ann Bowles (1786-1854) was married to Robert Southey who was the poet laureate of Britain. She wrote various other works including CHAPTER ON CHURCHYARD and TALES OF THE FACTORIES. THE RIVER is a poem which describes a river in all its vitality and splendor. 

1st stanza:  River, river, little river! Bright you sparkle on your way; O’er the yellow pebbles dancing, Through the flowers and foliage glancing, Like a child at play.
EXPLANATION Oh! Little river, you sparkle brightly on your way. You go dancing over the yellow pebbles. You glance through the flowers and leaves of trees, dancing all the while like a child at play (like a child who plays hide and seek.)

2nd stanza: River, river! Swelling river! On you rush through rough and smooth; Louder, faster, brawling leaping, Over rocks, by rose-blanks, sweeping Like impetuous youth.
EXPLANATION Oh you rising river, you rush through rough places and smooth places. You are brawling and leaping. You go by rough rocks and banks where roses grow. Now you are like a reckless youth.

 3rd stanza: River, river! Brimming river! Broad and deep, and still as time; Seeming still, yet still in motion, Tending onward to the ocean Just like mortal prime..
EXPLANATION Oh! River, which is full, now you are broad and deep and motionless as time. Though you seem motionless, you are moving towards the ocean. Now you are like a man in his prime.

4th stanza: River, river! Headlong river! Down you dash into the sea,- Sea that line hath never sounded, Sea that sail hath never rounded, Like eternity.
EXPLANATION Oh! River, you move quickly down into the sea. That sea’s depth has never been measured by a weighted line. None has gone by ship completely around the sea which can be compared to eternity. 

LAST STAGE OF THE POEM- Four stages of life are compared with the four stages in the course of the river
MICROPROCESSING OF THE INPUT THEME-It is a poem which describes a river in all its vitality and splendour FLOW OF THE RIVER -It shows the journey of life to eternity THE SEA -The sea reminds the pool of eternity TONE- The poem is highly philosophical

RHYMING WORD The Word which has the same last sound as another word. Motion – Ocean Dancing – Glancing Leaping – Sweeping

MEANING OF THE DIFFICULT WORDS PEBBLES: Small smooth and round stone especially found on a beach or river bank FOLIAGE: The leaves of plants or trees IMPETUOUS: Acting without thinking MORTAL PRIME: A man in the best age of his life ETERNITY: Endless time



C.A. Bowles's The River

On Friendship - Kahlil Gibran




On Friendship
-  Kahlil Gibran
Your friend is your needs answered.
He is your field which you sow with love and reap with thanksgiving.
And he is your board and your fireside.
For you come to him with your hunger, and you seek him for peace.

When your friend speaks his mind you fear not the "nay" in your own mind, nor do you withhold the "ay."
And when he is silent your heart ceases not to listen to his heart;
For without words, in friendship, all thoughts, all desires, all expectations are born and shared, with joy that is unacclaimed.
When you part from your friend, you grieve not;
For that which you love most in him may be clearer in his absence, as the mountain to the climber is clearer from the plain.
And let there be no purpose in friendship save the deepening of the spirit.
For love that seeks aught but the disclosure of its own mystery is not love but a net cast forth: and only the unprofitable is caught.

And let your best be for your friend.
If he must know the ebb of your tide, let him know its flood also.
For what is your friend that you should seek him with hours to kill?
Seek him always with hours to live.
For it is his to fill your need, but not your emptiness.
And in the sweetness of friendship let there be laughter, and sharing of pleasures.
For in the dew of little things the heart finds its morning and is refreshed.


1.         He is your field which you sow with love and reap with thanksgiving and he is your board and you fireside.

            These lines are taken from the Poem ‘On Friendship’ by Lebanese – Arabic poet Kahlil Gibran. The poem is an extract from his book ‘The Prophet’, written in 1923. The poem is a celebration of the joys of friendship.

 Context and Meaning: - When questioned by a student on the subject of friendship, the poet notes that a friend is God’s blessing. The most important ingredient in friendship is love. We shower friends with love and in return, we earn their gratitude. It is his way of answering our needs. The poet makes interesting comparisons while describing the traints of a true friend. A friend is your board and fireside. Even when he is physically away he provides you with the comfort and warmth in winter, a friend is a source of comfort during times of distress.

            Critical Comment :The poem uses lucid imagery to describe the relationship between friends. The most important ingredient in friendship is love. We shower friends with love and in return, we earn their gratitude.

2.      For without words, in friendship, all thoughts, all desire, all explanations are born and shared, with joy that is unacclaimed.

These lines are taken from the Poem ‘On Friendship’ by Lebanese – Arabic poet Kahlil Gibran. The poem is an extract from his book ‘The Prophet’, written in 1923.The poem is a celebration of the joys of friendship.

            Context and Meaning: - When questioned by a student on the subject of friendship, the poet notes that a friend is God’s blessing. The poet makes interesting comparisons while describing the traits of a true friend. The most important ingredient in friendship is love. We shower friends with love and in return, we earn their gratitude. A true friend is one with whom we can share our joys and sorrows. Communicating with him does not need any special effort. He is one who can understand not only our words but our silence too. We need not be afraid to speak out our mind in his ‘presence’ we can express our innermost feelings, hopes and fears.

            Critical Comment: -  A true friend is sure to understand and sympathise with us. We need not declare aloud the peace and contentment we feel in his company. For free friendship does not require publicity or elaborate explanations. Gibran focuses on the ability to understand each other, in silence as it is stronger than words and move eloquent than speech.

3.         For that which you love most in him may be clearer in his absence, as the mountain to the climber is clearer from the plain.

These lines are taken from the Poem ‘On Friendship’ by Lebanese – Arabic poet Kahlil Gibran.The poem is an extract from his book ‘The Prophet’, written in 1923.The poem is a celebration of the joys of friendship.
            Context and Meaning: -  When questioned by a student on the subject of friendship, the poet notes that a friend is God’s blessing.  The poet makes interesting comparisons while describing the traits of a true friend. The most important ingredient in friendship is love. We shower friends with love and in return, we earn their gratitude. A true friend is one with whom we can share joys and sorrows. When we climb a mountain we cannot see it in a proper perspective. A mountain appears cleaner when one is on the plain, at some distance away. In a similar manner we can appreciate fully the value of a friend only in his absolve .when he is in our midst, we fail to understand his good qualities. But once he is away, we miss him dearly and cherish the memories of our friendship.

            Critical Comment: The poet makes the use of words. His ideas are novel, philosophical and close to reality. The Imagery is apt and reveals his own clarity of perception in life in all its paradoxes.

4.         For in the dew of little things the heart finds its morning and is refreshed.

Poem & Poet : - These lines are taken from the Poem ‘On Friendship’ by Lebanese – Arabic poet Kahlil Gibran.The poem is an extract from his book ‘The Prophet’, written in 1923.The poem is a celebration of the joys of friendship.

            Context and Meaning: -  When questioned by a student on the subject of friendship, the poet notes that a friend is God’s blessing.  The poet makes interesting comparisons while describing the traits of a true friend. The most important ingredient in friendship is love. We shower friends with love and in return, we earn their gratitude. A true friend is un with whom we can share joys and sorrows. We count on friends when our life is at an ebb and we feel ‘low.’  We should be equally ready to share with them the flood of joy in our life.  We should turn to friends not simply because we are bored and need some recreation.  We feel relaxed and refreshed in the presence of a friend.  He is like the morning dew which brings freshness and life.  Thus, the company of a friend can refresh and enliven us.

            Critical Comment: The poet makes the use of words. His ideas are novel, philosophical and close to reality.  Gibran describes the qualities of a true friend.  A friend is a rock of support during times of grief.  But the poet gently reminds us at the end of the poem that we should share not only our troubles but our joys too.

1.     “Who finds a faithful friend finds a treasure.” Do you agree? Base your answer on Kahlil Gibran’s ‘On Friendship’.  (or)
          List all the qualities a true friend should have, according to Kahil Gibra.

                     The poem ‘On Friendship’ is written by Lebanese – Arabic poet Kahlil Gibran.  The Poem is an extract from his book ‘The Prophet’, written in 1923. The poem is a celebration of the joys of friendship.

                        A true friend is one who supports us in a crisis. He is like a board which gives support. He is like the fireside which keeps us ward in winter. He fulfils both material and spiritual needs. He can understand not only our words but out silence too. We need nit be afraid to speak freely in his presence. We can express our innermost feelings, hopes and fears. A mountain appears more clear when one is on the plain, at some distance away. In a similar manner, we can appreciate the value of a friend even more in his absence. True friendship is enjoyed and celebrated for its own sake. There are no ulterior motives or expectations among friends.


                        However, a friend is not merely one to whom we turn in times of sorrow. Gibran gently reminds us that we should share not only our troubles but our joys too with friends. We count on friends when our life is at an ebb and when we feel “low”. We should be equally ready to share with them the flood of joy in our life. We should seek the company of friends not simply because we are bored and nee some recreation. We feel relaxed and refreshed in the company of a friend as he is like the morning dew. A friend thus is an invaluable treasure.

On Friendship
-  Kahlil Gibran